Just enough Erlang/OTP and rebar, part 2

Building a gen_server to front the library and generating documentation.

Created Aug 17, 2011 by Lloyd R. Prentice

WHY

If you worked through the Cookbook item cookbook-otp1, you have created two Erlang applications under management of Rebar. You’ve used Rebar to create a gen_server template in the first application and added several functions. You’ve also created a library application with one function.

In this tutorial we’ll call our library function from our gen_server and generate documentation.

ASSUMPTIONS

You have Erlang R14B or later installed on your system. You have basic Bash command line skills. File editing tasks refer to vim. But you can use your code editor of choice.

You’ve successfully compiled the zzz and zzz_lib applications from Part I under Rebar.

This tutorial was tested on Ubuntu 11.04.

HOW

How can I call a library function from zzz_lib in a zzz module?

In the shell:

learn$ cd apps/zzz/src

Edit handle_call/2 in zzz_srv.erl as follows:

say_hello() ->
  gen_server:call(?MODULE, hello).

%% callbacks
handle_call(hello, _From, State) ->
  hello:hello(),
  io:format("~nHello from zzz_srv!~n", []),
  {reply, ok, State}.

While you’re at it, check your handle_cast/2 code. It should look like this:

stop() ->
  gen_server:cast(?MODULE, stop).

%% callbacks
handle_cast(stop, State) ->
  {stop, normal, State};

handle_cast(_Msg, State) ->
  {noreply, State}.

Now edit and save init/1 in learn/apps/zzz/src/zzz_sup.erl:

init([]) ->
   {ok, {{one_for_one, 1, 60}, [?CHILD(zzz_srv, worker)]}}.

Now recompile:

learn$ ./rebar clean compile

And test:

learn$ erl -pa apps/*/ebin
...
1> zzz_sup:start_link().
{ok,<0.34.0>}

Note that you may see a different PID on your system. Try some functions:

2> zzz_srv:say_hello().
Hello from zzz_lib!
Hello from zzz_srv!
ok

Both our library function and zzz_svr have performed as we’d hoped.

While developing this tutorial, I introduced a bug in zzz_svr:handle_cast/2. Once it started, I couldn’t stop. This was a good excuse to introduce a valuable debugging tool.

How can I kill a running process?

In the Erlang shell, start pman, the process manager:

3> pman:start().
<0.38.0>

You should see a graphic window open with a list of running processes. Find zzz_srv and zzz_sup under Name. Click on zz_sup to highlight. Now pull down the Trace menu item and click on kill. Note that you’ve not only killed zzz_sup, but zzz_srv as well. Of course. zzz_sup supervises zzz_srv. When it dies, so does zzz_srv.

You can confirm:

4> zzz_srv:say_hello().
** exception exit: {noproc,{gen_server,call,[zzz_srv,hello]}}
   in function  exit/1
      called as exit({noproc,{gen_server,call,[zzz_srv,hello]}})
   in call from gen_server:call/2

You assassin, you!

But, no worry, you can start it back up again:

5> zzz_srv:start().
{ok,<0.48.0>}

Now let’s test zzz_srv:stop().:

6) zzz_srv:stop().
ok

Seemed to worked. But...:

7> zzz_srv:say_hello().
Hello from zzz_lib!
Hello from zzz_srv!
ok

It turns out, zzz_sup started it up again. Try it again:

8> zzz_srv:stop().
** exception exit: shutdown

Wait! If you look at pman, you’ll see that zzz_sup also died. What’s going on here?

If you look at zzz_sup.erl in learn/apps/zzz/src, you’ll note that init/1 allows only one restart, the value following “one_for_one.”:

init([]) ->
   {ok, {{one_for_one, 1, 60}, [?CHILD(zzz_srv, worker)]}}.

For more details, checkout the Supervisor Behaviour: http://www.erlang.org/doc/design_principles/sup_princ.html

How can I generate documentation?

Add comments to learn/apps/zzz/src/zzz_srv.erl as follows:

%% @spec say_hello() -> none
%% @doc display greeting
say_hello() ->

And to learn/apps/zzz_lib/src/hello.erl:

%% @spec hello() -> none
%% @doc Library test function
hello() ->

Now execute:

learn$ ./rebar clean compile
...
learn$ ./rebar doc
==> zzz (doc)
==> zzz_lib (doc)

Check out your new doc directories:

learn$ ls apps/zzz
doc  ebin  src

learn$ ls apps/zzz_lib
doc  ebin  src

Now bring up your browser and point to file:

file:///home/learn/apps/zzz/doc/index.html file:///home/learn/apps/zzz_lib/doc/index.html

TROUBLESHOOTING

I got an error when I compiled. What now?

make sure rebar.config in ../learn looks like this::
{sub_dirs,
[“apps/zzz”,
“apps/zzz/src”, “apps/zzz_lib”, “apps/zzz_lib/src”

]

}.

Make sure you have this directory structure:

learn$ tree
.
apps
│   ├── zzz
│   │   ├── ebin
│   │   └── src
│   │       ├── zzz_app.erl
│   │       ├── zzz.app.src
│   │       ├── zzz_srv.erl
│   │       └── zzz_sup.erl
│   └── zzz_lib
│       └── src
│           ├── hello.erl
│           ├── zzz_lib_app.erl
│           ├── zzz_lib.app.src
│           └── zzz_lib_sup.erl
├── rebar
└── rebar.config

WHAT YOU’VE LEARNED

You’ve now had a good soak in basic Erlang/OTP conventions and Erlang. You can install Rebar, create an Erlang/OTP application, compile it and create documentation.

WHERE TO GO FROM HERE

Study the on-line and printed Erlang documentation upside and sideways. Skim to see what’s there, then reread everytime you have a problem. You’ll be an Erlang/OTP wizard before you know it.

Now, dive into Zotonic source code. It should be much easier to follow:

REFERENCES

Getting Started https://bitbucket.org/basho/rebar/wiki/GettingStarted

Damn Technology http://damntechnology.blogspot.com/ Thursday, August 4, 2011

How to create, build, and run an Erlang OTP application using Rebar http://skeptomai.com/?p=56#sec-3

Commands http://hg.basho.com/rebar/wiki/Commands

Erlang App. Management with Rebar http://erlang-as-is.blogspot.com/2011/04/erlang-app-management-with-rebar-alan.html

Dizzy Smith – Building Erlang Applications with Rebar http://ontwik.com/erlang/dizzy-smith-building-erlang-applications-with-rebar/

Rebar Demo using ibrowse http://vimeo.com/8311407

rebar / rebar.config.sample http://hg.basho.com/rebar/src/d4fcc10abc0b/rebar.config.sample